Gum Periodontal Treatment

Periodontal disease (Gum disease)

Gingivitis is a form of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is when inflammation and infection destroy the tissues that support the teeth, including the gingival (gums), the periodontal ligaments, and tooth sockets (alveolar bone).

Risk Factors

Smoking : Smoking is one of the most significant risk factors associated with the development of gum disease.
Hormonal changes in girls/women : These changes can make gums more sensitive and make it easier for gingivitis to develop.
Diabetes : People with diabetes are at higher risk for developing infections, including gum disease.
Medications : There are hundreds of prescription and over the counter medications that can reduce the flow of saliva, which has a protective effect on the mouth. Without enough saliva, the mouth is vulnerable to infections such as gum disease. And some medications can cause abnormal overgrowth of the gum tissue; this can make it difficult to keep gums clean.
Illnesses : Diseases like cancer or AIDS and their treatments can also negatively affect the health of gums.
Genetic susceptibility : Some people are more prone to severe gum disease than others.
Gingivitis is caused by the long term effects of plaque deposits. Plaque is sticky material that develops on the exposed portion of the teeth, consisting of bacteria, mucus, and food debris. It is major cause of tooth decay. Unmoved plaque mineralizes into a hard deposit called tarter that becomes trapped at the base of the tooth. Plaque and tarter irritate and inflame the gingival. Bacteria produce toxins which cause the gums to become infected, swollen, and tender.

Symptoms of Gingivitis:

  • Bleeding gums during tooth brushing.
  • Bright red and swollen gums.
  • Gums and teeth not closing tightly.
  • Long period of bad breath.
  • Pus leaking out between gums and teeth.
  • Noticeable tooth movement.
  • Looser partial denture.
  • Fibrous food lodging between teeth.
Gum Disease Occurs
Swollen & Pus Gums
Before
After
Severly Inflammed Gums

Periodontal Disease:


If Gingivitis is not treated than it can lead to pyorrhea(Periodontitis).
"Periodontal" comes from the Greek, meaning "around the teeth." Periodontal diseases start as a bacterial infection which attacks the gums, jawbone and ligaments that support the teeth and hold them in the jaw. Periodontal diseases are usually painless and may develop slowly or progress quite rapidly. Unless you have regular check ups, you may not be aware you have a periodontal disease until your gums and bone have been so seriously damaged that tooth loss is inevitable.

The straight yellow line shows normal level of the supporting bone level
While this figure shows extended bone loss which is irregular yellow line

Treatment Plan


The method of treatment of periodontal diseases depends upon the type of disease and how far the condition has progressed. Options for care usually, but not always, include the following:

  • Oral hygiene care performed correctly and consistently.
  • A proper periodontal program (scaling, root planing, and/or curettage) on a regular basis .
  • Chemical irrigation with specific mouth rinse and antibiotics.
  • Periodontal surgery to reduce or eliminate periodontal pockets .
Tissue regeneration to build supporting bone and tissue that was lost during the disease state Replacement of the missing teeth and reconstruction of the proper bite.

Bad Breath


What Causes Bad Breath? Most of the time (85%-90%) bad breath originates in the mouth. It is caused by bacteria in our mouth. This bacteria is breaking down food debris which creates by-products called volatile sulfur compounds (methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide) which emit a smell similar to rotten eggs. Because this bacteria needs an environment free of oxygen, they will live in areas that are difficult to reach-such as pockets around teeth; the gr ooves in the tongue and especially on the back of the tongue.
In some conditions, the odor may be caused by:

  • A systemic condition, such as diabetes
  • Sinuses problems
  • Troubles with the pharynx, lungs or stomach
  • Respiratory tract infection
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Gastrointestinal disturbance
  • Liver or kidney ailment
  • Poor dental hygiene Infrequent or improper brushing and flossing can leave food particles to decay
  • Infections in the mouth - gum disease
  • Respiratory-tract infections - throat infections, sinus infections, lung infections
  • Dry mouth- caused by salivary gland problems, medications or by "mouth breathing"
    Systemic illnesses - Diabetes, liver disease, kidney disease, lung disease, sinus disease, reflux disease. Other factors can cause bad breath, such as :Alcohol, Dry mouth, Poor oral hygiene, Gum disease ,denture
  • Gently cleaning the tongue surface twice daily is the most effective way to keep bad breath in control, tongue cleaner or scraper to wipe off the bacterial debris, and mucus. . Brushing a small amount of antibacterial mouth rinse or tongue gel onto the tongue surface will further inhibit bacterial action.
  • Eating a healthy breakfast with rough foods helps clean the very back of the tongue.
  • Chewing gum: Since dry-mouth can increase bacterial buildup and cause or worsen bad breath, chewing sugarless gum can help with the production of saliva, and thereby help to reduce bad breath. Chewing may help particularly when the mouth is dry, or when one cannot perform oral hygiene procedures after meals. This aids in provision of saliva, which washes away oral bacteria, has antibacterial properties and promotes mechanical activity which helps cleanse the mouth. Some chewing gums contain special anti-odor ingredients.
  • Gargling right before bedtime with an effective mouthwash. Several types of commercial mouthwashes have been shown to reduce malodor.
  • Maintaining proper oral hygiene, including daily tongue cleaning, brushing, flossing, and periodic visits to dentists. Flossing is particularly important in removing rotting food debris and bacterial plaque from between the teeth, especially at the gumline. Dentures should be properly cleaned and soaked overnight in antibacterial solution (unless otherwise advised by your dentist).